Saya cuba untuk memberi sedikit pengenalan kepada pengunjung semua terhadap pelbagai baka kambing utama yang terdapat di seluruh dunia. Saya akan memulakan dengan baka-baka utama yang lebih relevan dengan industri penternakan di negara kita. Insya'Allah saya akan update post ini dari semasa ke semasa untuk memberikan maklumat yang lebih luas skopnya serta lebih terperinci.
Terdapat pelbagai baka utama kambing di seluruh dunia, di antaranya:
1. KAMBING KATJANG
(disebut kajang) iaitu kambing kampung yang dibela secara tradisional di negara kita. Berbadan rendah dan bersaiz kecil. Berat maksima purata bagi induk betina dewasa adalah sekitar 25kg.
2. KAMBING BOER
Also Known by: Africander, Afrikaner, South African common goat
The Boer is an improved indigenous breed with some infusion of European, Angora and Indian goat breeding many years ago. Several researchers agree that the indigenous populations were probably from the Namaqua Hottentots and from southward migrating Bantu tribes. The name is derived from the Dutch word "boer" meaning farmer and was probably used to distinguish the native goats from the Angora goats which were imported into South Africa during the 19th century. The present day Boer goat appeared in the early 1900's when ranchers in the Easter Cape Province started selecting for a meat type goat.
The South African registry was established in 1959. Since 1970 the Boer goat has been incorporated into the National Mutton Sheep and Goat Performance Testing Scheme making it the first goat breed involved in meat production performance testing.
The Boer goat is primarily a meat goat with several adaptations to the region in which it was developed. It is a horned breed with lop ears and showing a variety of color patterns. The Boer goat is being used very effectively in South Africa in combination with cattle due to its browsing ability and limited impact on the grass cover. Producing weaning rates in excess of 160% the Boer goat doe is a low maintenance animal that has sufficient milk to rear a kid that is early maturing. The mature Boer Goat ram weighs between 110-135 kg (~240-300 lbs) and ewes between 90 and 100 kg (~200-225 lbs).
Performance records for this breed indicate exceptional individuals are capable of average daily gains over 0.44 lb/day (200 g/day) in feedlot. More standard performance would be 0.3-0.4 lbs/day (150-170 g/day). The ovulation rate for Boer goats ranges from 1 to 4 eggs/doe with an average of 1.7. A kidding rate of 200% is common for this breed. Puberty is reached early, ususally about 6 months for the males and 10-12 months for the females. The Boer goat also has an extended breeding season making possible 3 kiddings every 2 years.
Jamnapari is originated from the frontier of India and Pakistan, it has been imported from India to Indonesia since 1953. After years of breeding, Jamnapari has become the highest quality breed in Indonesia.
Jamnapari is famous for its large and graceful body. It has long ears and thick fur on rumps. Male Jamnapari is weighted up to 120 kg while the female is up to 90 kg. Though they are large in size, they are mild in nature. They like idling around the barn, looking for water and food.
4. KAMBING SAANEN (Kambing Tenusu)
Does should be feminine, and not coarse. Saanens are white or light cream in color, with white preferred. Spots on the skin are not discriminated against. Small spots of color on the hair are allowable, but not desirable. The hair should be short and fine, although a fringe over the spine and thighs is often present. Ears should be erect and alertly carried, preferably pointing forward. The face should be straight or dished. A tendency toward a roman nose is discriminated against.
The breed is sensitive to excessive sunlight and performs best in cooler conditions. The provision of shade is essential and tan skin is preferable.
5. KAMBING TOGGENBURG (Kambing Tenusu)
The Toggenburg is a Swiss dairy goat from Toggenburg Valley of Switzerland at Obertoggenburg. They are also credited as being the oldest known dairy goat breed.
This breed is medium size, sturdy, vigorous, and alert in appearance. Slightly smaller than the other Alpine breeds, the does weight at least 120lb/55kg.
The hair is short or medium in length, soft, fine, and lying flat. Its color is solid varying from light fawn to dark chocolate with no preference for any shade. Distinct white markings are as follows: white ears with dark spot in middle; two white stripes down the face from above each eye to the muzzle; hind legs white from hocks to hooves; forelegs white from knees downward with a dark lien (band) below knee acceptable; a white triangle on either side of the tail; white spot may be present at root of wattles or in that area if no wattles are present. Varying degrees of cream markings instead of pure white acceptable, but not desirable. The ears are erect and carried forward. Facial lines may be dished or straight, never roman.
Toggenburgs perform best in cooler conditions. They are noted for their excellent udder development and high milk production, and have an average fat test of 3.7 percent.
6. Kambing Anglo-Nubian
Baka Anglo-Nubian bukan merupakan baka kambing tulen, sebaliknya ia merupakan hasil dari proses kacukan yang dijalankan secara bergenerasi di Eropah, di antara baka dari Asia (kemungkinan pejantan Jamnapari) dan baka kambing Eropah (kemungkinan induk Toggenburg).
Kambing Anglo-Nubian tulen sukar didapati di negara kita, tetapi baka kacukan yang terhasil di antara Anglo-Nubian dan kambing kampung (katjang) boleh didapati dengan mudah.
Induk kacukan kampung dan Anglo-Nubian yang terdapat dengan banyaknya di negara kita.